The right to water and the Oceanic constitutions

Table of the Oceanic constitutions
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 4 years, 8 months ago (06/27/2013)
Updated: 3 years, 5 months ago (09/08/2014)
The following table provides an analyze of the recognition of the right to water and sanitation and related rights in the constitutions of the Oceanic countries. The last column deals with the vote on the Resolution 64/292 recognizing the human right to water adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on July 28, 2010.

This table was made by Florence Higuet.
Different resources have been used to define its content : the
Waterlex Legal Database and the constitutions database of the University of Richmond.

Table of the Oceanic constitutions

CountryExplicit recognition of the human right to water and sanitationRecognition of other related human rights (rights to life, housing, health, food, healthy environment etc.)Vote on Resolution 64/292  recognizing the human right to water and sanitation adopted by the UN GA on July 28, 2010 : yes/abstention/absent
Australia
no
Const. 1990

abstention
(comment*)
Fiji
maybe,
absent from Const. 1997, but present in Draft constitution 2013, which is currently under discussion
art. 32:
"Right to housing and sanitation :
(1)The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to accessible and adequate housing and sanitation.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
art. 33:
"Right to adequate food and water :
(1) The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to be free from hunger, to have adequate food of acceptable quality and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
Const. 1997
art. 22: right to life

Draft const. 2013
art. 35: right to health
art. 37: right to a healthy environment
co-author
Kiribati
no
Const. 1979
art. 4: right to life
absent
Marshall
no
Const. 1979
art. 2 - Bill of Rights, section 15: right to health
absent
Micronesia
no
Const. 1978

absent
Nauru
no
Const. 1968
art. 4: right to life
absent
New Zealand
no
Const. = different constitutional documents including the Constitutional Act of 1986 and the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act of 1990 (only civil and political rights)

abstention
(comment*)
Palau
no
Const. 1979

absent
Papau New Guinea
no
Const. 1975
Preamble, National Goals and Directive Principles:
"1. Integral human development (...) We accordingly call for : (4) improvement in the level of nutrition and the standard of public health to enable our people to attain self fulfilment ; (...)
4. Natural resources and environment
We declare our fourth goal to be for Papua New Guinea’s natural resources and environment to be conserved and used for the collective benefit of us all, and be replenished for the benefit of future generations."
absent
Solomon Island
no
Const. 1978
art. 4: right to life
co-author
Samoa
no
Const. 1960
art. 5: right to life
co-author
Tonga
no
Const. 1875

absent
Tuval
no
Const. 1986
art. 16: right to life
co-author
Vanuatu
no
Const. 1980
art. 5 (1) (a): right to life
art. 7 (d): duty to protect the environment
co-author


*You can find each State comment during the vote on the Resolution 64/292 at point 48 (p. 4) of the Official meeting Records A/64/PV.108 of the plenary meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations of July, 28, 2010.

Le droit à l'eau et les constitutions océaniques

Tableau des constitutions d'Océanie
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 4 years, 8 months ago (06/05/2013)
Updated: 3 years, 5 months ago (09/08/2014)
De manière schématique et claire, le tableau ci-dessous analyse la reconnaissance du droit à l'eau et à l'assainissement et d'autres droits liés dans les constitutions des pays de l'Océanie. La dernière colonne porte sur le vote des pays par rapport à la Résolution 64/292 de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU sur le droit à l'eau du 28 juillet 2010.

Ce tableau a été réalisé par Florence Higuet.
Pour ce travail, différentes sources ont été utilisées :
 la Waterlex Legal Database et la base de données des constitutions de l'Université de Richmond.


Tableau des constitutions d'Océanie



Pays
Reconnaissance explicite du droit humain à l'eau et à l'assainissement
Reconnaissance d'autres droits liés (droit à la vie, au logement, à la santé, à l'alimentation, à un environnement sain etc.)
Vote de la Résolution de l'AG de l'ONU 64/292 sur le droit à l'eau du 28 juillet 2010 : oui/abstention/absent
Australienon
Const. 1990

abstention (commentaires*)
 Fidjipeut-être,
absent dans la Const. 1997, mais présent dans Draft constitution 2013 qui est discuté actuellement :
art. 32 :
"Right to housing and sanitation :
(1)The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to accessible and adequate housing and sanitation.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
art. 33 :
"Right to adequate food and water :
(1) The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to be free from hunger, to have adequate food of acceptable quality and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
Const. 1997 :
art. 22 : droit à la vie

Draft constitution 2013
:
art. 35 : droit à la santé
art. 37
: droit à un environnement sain
co-auteur
 Kiribatinon
Const. 1979 
art. 4 : droit à  a vie
absent
 Marshallnon
Const. 1979
art. 2 - Bill of Rights, section 15 : droit à la santé
absent
 Micronésienon
Const. 1978 


absent
 Naurunon
Const. 1968

art. 4 : droit à la vie
absent
Nouvelle-Zélandenon
Const.
= plusieurs textes à valeur constitutionnel dont Constitutional Act of 1986 et le New Zealand Bill of Rights Act of 1990 (uniquement droits civils et politiques)

abstention (commentaires*)
 Palaosnon
Const. 1979


absent
 Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinéenon
Const. 1975


 

       

       

      

Preamble, National Goals and Directive Principles:
"1. Integral human development (...) We accordingly call for : (4) improvement in the level of nutrition and the standard of public health to enable our people to attain self fulfilment ; (...)
4. Natural resources and environment
We declare our fourth goal to be for Papua New Guinea’s natural resources and environment to be conserved and used for the collective benefit of us all, and be replenished for the benefit of future generations."
absent
 Iles Salomonnon
Const. 1978

art. 4 : droit à la vie
co-auteur
 Samoanon
Const. 1960
art. 5 : droit à la vie
co-auteur
 Tonganon
Const. 1875


absent
 Tuvalunon
Const. 1986
art. 16 : droit à la vie
co-auteur
 Vanuatunon
Const. 1980

art. 5 (1) (a) : droit à la vie
art. 7 (d) : obligation de protection de l'environnement
co-auteur


*Pour retrouver le commentaire d'un Etat lors du vote de la Résolution 64/292, consultez le point 48 (p. 4) du procès-verbal A/64/PV.108 de la séance plénière de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU du 28 juillet 2010.